Electrical safety – LVD
Electrical equipment must be safe when properly installed, used and maintained. Electrical safety issues are regulated with the Electrical Safety Act and the Low Voltage Directive (LVD). The purpose of the LVD is to ensure that electrical equipment on the market are safe for persons, domestic animals and property.
The manufacturer of electrical equipment is responsible for ensuring that the equipment is in compliance with the requirements of the LVD.
Application of the LVDsoveltaminen
LVD applies to electrical equipment designed for use with
- a voltage rating of between 50 and 1,000 V for alternating current
- a voltage rating of between 75 and 1,500 V for direct current.
Here, ‘voltage rating’ refers to the input or output voltage of electrical equipment, not to the voltage that may be present within the equipment.
While the LVD does not apply to all electrical equipment, the Electrical Safety Act requires all electrical devices to be safe.
LVD does not apply to
- electrical equipment for use in an explosive atmosphere
- electrical equipment for radiology and medical purposes
- electrical parts for goods and passenger lifts
- electricity meters
- plugs and socket outlets for domestic use
- electric fence controllers
- radio-electrical interference
- specialised electrical equipment for use on ships, aircraft or railways
custom built evaluation kits destined for professionals to be used at research and development facilities.
How to ensure conformity
- Check the requirements
The LVD specifies the essential safety requirements of electrical equipment. The manufacturer can demonstrate compliance by testing the equipment in accordance with harmonised standards.
- Check conformity
The manufacturer must verify and test that the electronic equipment meets the requirements of the LVD. The manufacturer must also assess the risks presented by the device.
- Prepare the required documents
The manufacturer must draw up technical documentation for the electrical equipment. In addition to technical documents, the EU declaration of conformity and the necessary instructions must also be prepared to enable the end user to use the equipment safely and to the intended purpose.
- Attach the CE marking and other labels
In addition to the CE marking, the manufacturer must also attach the other markings required by the Directive to the electrical equipment.
Sähkölaitteiden laitekohtaisissa standardeissa on usein esitetty yksityiskohtaisia vaatimuksia tiedoista, ohjeista ja varoituksista, joita laitteen merkintöjen ja ohjeiden pitää sisältää. Valmistajan on varmistettava laitetta koskevat merkintävaatimukset myös laitetta koskevista standardeista.
Tyypillisesti sähkölaitteessa on oltava nimellisjännite ja -taajuus, teho ja kotelointiluokka, ellei IP 20, sekä mahdolliset käyttörajoitteet, kuten ”Ei saa peittää”, tai käyttöaikarajoitus minuuteissa.
Obligations of the manufacturer, importer and seller
In addition to requirements on products, the LVD creates a number of obligations for the manufacturer, importer and seller of the product.