Lifecycle of lithium-ion batteries

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a widely used and effective battery type. Li-ion batteries are used, for example, in mobile devices, power tools, electric bicycles, electric vehicles and industries.

This, primarily very safe, type of battery also involves risks due to its efficiency. The risks of Li-ion batteries, such as thermal runaway, differ from those of other battery types.

This page describes the lifecycle of batteries, factors affecting the safety of batteries, and key risks. This page includes information on the regulations and authorities related to the different stages of the lifecycle.

Phases in the lifecycle of Li-ion batteries

Mining operations related to battery minerals
Mineral exploration • Lithium and mining operations • Mineral treatment and processing

Production and storage of battery chemicals
Production of battery chemicals • Battery chemicals as products • Transport of battery chemicals

Manufacture and storage of batteries
Manufacture or importing of batteries and battery cells • Storage of batteries

Transport of batteries
Lithium batteries are classified as dangerous in transport

Sales of batteries
Safety and labelling

Use of batteries
Using batteries in electrical systems • Consumer use of batteries as parts of products

Battery rooms
Security issues to be taken into account in positioning and planning

Reuse of batteries
Change of intended use

Recycling of batteries
Decommissioning batteries • Collection of decommissioned batteries • Transport of decommissioned batteries